Dr Kathy Keeling

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Position: Senior Lecturer in Marketing Research
Academic unit: Management Sciences and Marketing


Kathy Keeling joined the new MBS Marketing Division in September 2004 as a Lecturer in Marketing Research, having previously worked at Manchester School of Management as a Research Fellow for many years. She has worked closely and gained research support from many organisations, the larger including Boots, British Airways, the Co-operative Bank (now Co-operative Financial Services), CWS, Manchester Evening News and Microsoft; cross-disciplinary interests are reflected in the research funding obtained from both the ESRC and EPSRC. She has published a number of papers across retailing, marketing, e-commerce and human-computer interaction and universal access to IT fields.

Recent projects with funding from research councils include:

  • A project under the Realising Our Potential Award (ROPA) scheme concerning Human Computer Relationships And Persuasiveness In E-Retailing (Award number: GR/R66890/01) conducted in collaboration with Professor Peter McGoldrick and Dr Susan Beatty of the Manchester Business School.
  • A UK e-commerce project, called HiSPEC funded jointly by the ERSC/EPSRC/DTI and the Co-operative Bank (project ref: L142251008). HiSPEC stands for 'Human Issues in Security and Privacy in e-Commerce' and is concerned with user perceptions of and requirements for security and privacy enhancing technologies. A key focus of this research is the development of social marketing campaigns and the application of the TransTheoretical Model to the adoption of e-precautions. This 30-month programme of research involves the close collaboration, involvement and financial input of a major industrial partner, the Co-operative Bank, two housing communities and SMEs involved in e-commerce. The project was conducted in collaboration with Professor Linda Macaulay of the School of Informatics and Professor Peter McGoldrick of the Manchester Business School. (see www.hispec.org.uk)
  • A European project: E-Factors (project ref: IST-2001-34868) a European Commission funded project under the Information Society Technologies Programme (IST). The E-Factors project brings together universities, research centers and practitioners to determine factors of sustainable adoption of new business models based on e-Business practices across Europe. Two key outcomes from the project are (1) a number of case studies of e-business adoption together with an analysis of key success factors and (2) teaching materials for use in university e-business courses. (in collaboration with Professor Linda Macaulay, School of Informatics).
  • Human Factors in the Design of Electronic Service Delivery Systems for Use in Complex Environments- a grant of 140,000 was awarded by the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council to base fund this programme of work for three years. Collaborating companies in this project, including Microsoft, Boots, Interface Ltd., Co-operative Bank, CWS and the Manchester Evening News have variously provided access, research support, relevant computer software and hardware and staff time for software/requirements development.

Additional Information

Kathy Keeling runs modules in Marketing Research and Data Analysis for both undergraduate and postgraduate courses, and Social Marketing at undergraduate level.

Programme involvement

Specialist fields




Publication summary




Working papers

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Showing 58 publication(s)


  • Liu, Y-L., Keeling, K., & Papamichail, K. (2016). An Exploratory Study of Jobseekers’ Decision-Making Style, Recruitment Information Source and Organisational Attractiveness. Personnel Review, 45(6), 1403-1427. DOI: 10.1108/PR-11-2014-0250. Publication link: ebdb684e-2ed7-4d2f-8520-56859fabc9d0
  • Yu-Lun Liu, Keeling, K., & Papamichail, K. (2016). Maximising the credibility of realistic job preview messages: The effect of jobseekers’ decision-making style on recruitment information credibility. International Journal of Human Resource Management. DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2016.1203347. Publication link: f0679276-65e6-423c-b0d3-362d4672749a
  • Mousavi, S., Roper, S., & Keeling, K. (2016). Interpreting Social Identity in Online Brand Communities: Considering Posters and Lurkers. Psychology and Marketing. . Publication link: 64dc600a-fee4-4ed5-b933-e054f55e8412


  • Nieroda, M., Keeling, K., & Keeling, D. I. (2015). Acceptance of Mobile Apps for Health Self-management: Regulatory Fit Perspective. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Personalisation and Adaptation in Technology for Health (PATH 2015). 23rd conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, CEURWS (2015). CEUR-WS. . Publication link: c0c532a1-a457-4f31-87b1-a27870cd47ec
  • Barnett, W., Foos, A., Gruber, T., Keeling, D., Keeling, K., & Nasr, L. (2015). Re-Examining Value Co-Creation in the Age of Interactive Service Robots. In host publication.. Publication link: 14e7eaca-6117-46ab-b4f7-71730d9e6025
  • McGoldrick, P., & Keeling, K. (2015). Motivating sustainability: extending the decisional balance scale. In Ideas in Marketing: Finding the New and Polishing the Old. (Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science (DMSPAMS)). Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10951-0_200. Publication link: 22a3579d-56b3-4c67-91f0-93a3cb018809
  • Keeling, K., Nieroda, M., Keeling, K., & Keeling, D. (2015). Healthcare Self-Management Tools: Promotion or Prevention Regulatory Focus? A Scale (PR-PV) Development and Validation. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 23(1), 57-74. DOI: 10.1080/10696679.2015.980174. Publication link: 57d446de-436a-4d52-a7fd-9de4026246ce


  • Gruber, T., Jaegel, T., Keeling, K., & Reppel, A. (2014). Chapter 8 – Individual Values and Motivational Complexities in Ethical Clothing Consumption: A Means-End Approach. In Contemporary Issues in Green and Ethical Marketing. (pp. 181-203). London: Routledge. . Publication link: cf5d8736-ed0f-47ac-ab61-b6d032f1c4ce
  • Barnett, W., Foos, A., Gruber, T., Keeling, D., Keeling, K., & Nasr, L. (2014). Consumer Perceptions of Interactive Service Robots: A Value- Dominant Logic Perspective. In host publication. (pp. 1134-1139). Publication link: e8788234-bca8-44b1-87cf-0095dbc81ad1
  • Liu, Y-L., Keeling, K., & Papamichail, K. N. (2014). Satisfying Maximizers’ and Satisficers’ Information Needs Through the Design of Advertisements in the Retail Trade. In host publication.. Publication link: e90c5aee-19ea-4a65-a47b-eb2580045b7a
  • Liu, Y-L., Keeling, K. A., & Papamichail, K. N. (2014). Should Retail Trade Companies Avoid Recruiting Maximisers? In host publication.. Publication link: ab41d381-07cb-4fac-89f8-70e361b66782


  • Gadella, E., Abosag, I., & Keeling, K. (2013). “Metaverse-retail service quality: A future framework for retail service quality in the 3D internet.”. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(13-14), 1493-1517. . Publication link: 6b4cc6d8-7549-4449-8caa-89f22284d80e
  • Keeling, K., & McGoldrick, P. (2013). When persuasion produces barriers: Dimensions of reactance for six pro-environmental behaviors.. Paper presented at Society for Marketing Advances Annual Conference, Hilton Head, SC, .. Publication link: b309d43f-7c37-4c60-b351-5cee85f88d95
  • Barnett, W., Foos, A., Gruber, T., Keeling, E., Keeling, K., & Nasr, L. (2013). “A Re-Examination of Value Co-creation in the Age of Interactive Service Robots: A Service Dominant Logic Perspective”,Journal of Macromarketing, 33(4), 397-398. . Publication link: ce341c27-c073-4688-b9f5-92828a863c9b


  • Piacentini, M., Banister, E., Salciuviene, L., & Keeling, K. (2012). Emerging issues in transformative consumer research and social marketing: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 11(4), 273-274. DOI: 10.1002/cb.1392. Publication link: ed3e07cf-055d-4197-8a1c-277c3edba9d2


  • Keeling, K., & McGoldrick, P. (2010). Shame, guilt and pride: the role of the moral emotions in marketing pro-environmental behaviour. In host publication.. Publication link: 8650688a-c2b3-4ba8-a3a1-213776f86d7a
  • Keeling, K., McGoldrick, P., & Loukas, K. (2010). Shame, guilt and pride: the role of the moral emotions in marketing pro-environmental personal transport services.. Paper presented at 19th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Karlstad, Sweden, .. Publication link: 5215eedd-b531-40f8-9d86-86c6acaae4d5


  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K. A., & Stanbridge, A. (2009). Motivating Pro-Environmental Behaviors: Utility of the Decisional Balance Scale, Self Efficacy and Reactance. In Proceedings of the 2009 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference . (pp. 5-5). (Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science (DMSPAMS)). Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10864-3_5. Publication link: 19dece21-3f7f-40c1-8ba8-04d9af0a6830
  • De Angeli, A., Keeling, K., de Angeli, A., & McGoldrick, P. (2009). Social Interaction with Virtual Beings: The Technology Relationship Interaction Model and Its Agenda for Research. In Virtual Social Identity and Consumer Behavior. New York: ME Sharpe. . Publication link: d63309c7-7418-43e0-b258-16520c3297d1
  • Keeling, K., McGoldrick, P., Charavitsidou, P., & Thompson, H. (2009). SWOM: a Delphi study of the content and valence of staff word of mouth. In Marketing in Transition: Scarcity, Globalism, & Sustainability. (Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science (DMSPAMS)). Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18687-0_141. Publication link: fc8bfe17-0fb7-4be5-9f4b-3be9db1ba489



  • Keeling, K., McGoldrick, P., & Beatty, S. (2007). Virtual onscreen assistants: A viable strategy to support online customer relationship building?Advances in Consumer Research, 34, 138-144. . Publication link: 7ed44990-3602-4a0b-870b-6b6c7e074661
  • Macaulay, L. A., Keeling, K., McGoldrick, P., Dafoulas, G., Kalaitzakis, E., & Keeling, D. (2007). Co-evolving e-tail and on-line communities: Conceptual framework. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 11(4), 53-77. DOI: 10.2753/JEC1086-4415110402. Publication link: ac46d2b0-a80b-4753-8ae5-6d05f6d5e2eb
  • Ting, L., McGoldrick, P., & Keeling, K. (2007). The 'Social' in Social Marketing Applied to E-Precautions: Identifying the Social Aspect in the Decisional Balance Scale Construct. In Academy of Marketing Science World Marketing Congress, Verona.. Publication link: c24c6755-2376-457e-8030-54ad899822ba
  • McGoldrick, P., & Keeling, K. (2007). Strengthening the Weakest Link: The Marketing of Safe Surfing. Can Customers be Segmented by Attitudes to E-Precautions? In Association for Consumer Research Conference, Memphis.. Publication link: f5e2ef1e-6877-46d2-8fe0-6150640a1991


  • Keeling, K., McGoldrick, P., & Beatty, S. (2006). Virtual On-Screen Assistants: A Viable Strategy to Support On-Line Customer Relationships? In Association for Consumer Research Conference, Orlando.. Publication link: e1f21f60-79d4-4712-b2dc-809d24268aa0
  • Keeling, K., Sherry, Y., & Keeling, D. (2006). Passwords and Persuasion: The Role of Humour in Social Marketing of Secure Password Use. In www Conference, IADIS.. Publication link: 8fe83241-0d64-41f4-b048-fee1cc066d5f


  • Keeling, K., McGoldrick, P. J., & Susan, B. (2005). What Constitutes the 'Assist' in E-Assistants: the customer viewpoint. In host publication.. Publication link: fff69c23-3d65-44cc-96cf-c3158b9e4111
  • Hussin, A. R. C., Keeling, K., Macaulay, L., & McGoldrick, P. (2005). A trust agent for e-commerce: Looking for clues. In Proceedings - 2005 IEEE International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service, EEE-05|Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Technol. Comm. Ser.. (pp. 286-289). Publication link: d2004422-1f8a-410a-8a3b-dc94dd64cf31
  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K., Macaulay, L., Dafoulas, G., & Kalaitzakis, M. (2005). Intensely Focused Groups with On-line Communities.. Publication link: 4ad6ff5e-f92a-48ae-b610-3a5264c138c3


  • Keeling, K., McGoldrick, P., Beatty, S., & Macaulay, L. (2004). Face value? Customer views of appropriate formats for Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) in online retailing. In R. H. Sprague Jr. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences|Proc Hawaii Int Conf Syst Sci. (Vol. 37, pp. 2761-2770). Publication link: 3b2c088f-8696-425b-af9e-402a4e9b2e43
  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K., & Beatty, S. (2004). A Head Start? Human-Computer Relationships, Trust and Persuasiveness in E-Retailing. In Proceedings of the 11th Recent Advances in Retailing & Services Science Conference, Prague.. Publication link: e8f615c5-102f-4197-ba5a-08153ccfb448
  • McGoldrick, P. J., Keeling, K., & Macaulay, L. (2004). Human Computer Relationships and Persuasiveness in e-Retailing. EPSRC.. Publication link: d536fdcb-f9c6-467a-a2c6-dbf94fa6c4ab


  • Lee, M. S., McGoldrick, P., Doherty, J., & Keeling, K. (2003). Using ZMET to Explore Barriers to the Adoption of 3G Mobile Banking Services.International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 31(6/7), 340-348. DOI: 10.1108/09590550310476079. Publication link: e770e95e-ea28-4c3f-a2e6-83dab9d16b6e
  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K., & Ting, L. (2003). Social Marketing and the Application of Decisional Balance in the Context of Online Privacy Protection.. Publication link: b59c4ea8-0f59-408e-9536-0a16ceeb8590
  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K., & Ting, L. (2003). The Application of the Trans-theoretical Model to the Adoption of Self-protection Methods for Online Privacy and Security.. Publication link: 1b45dc96-ccac-4916-9e54-7f783a9a7472
  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K., Doherty, J., Ting, L., & McCaulay, L. (2003). Using the TTM to Understand and to Influence Consumer Adoption of Security and Privacy Enhancing Technologies.. Publication link: 632f289f-bd2d-464a-9e19-881b4bcfc7df
  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K., & Ting, L. (2003). The Application of Stage of Change to the Adoption of Self Protection Methods for Online Privacy and Security. In Proceedings of the 10th Biennial Conference of European Association for Educators and Researchers in Commercial Distribution. (pp. 1920-1931). Stirling, UK: EAERCD. . Publication link: 90161e5a-47f0-4aaf-a682-08edb7b1412a
  • Doherty, J., Keeling, K., Newholm, T., Fowler, D., McGoldrick, P., & Macaulay, L. (2003). Stories, Myths and Metaphors: explaining self-exclusion and Internet use in the home.. Publication link: 83c869dc-d265-4927-bc35-fadca670184a


  • Mcgoldrick, P., Keeling, K., Macaulay, L., & Fowler, D. (2001). Electronic Kiosk Provision of Public Information: Toward Understanding and Quantifying Facilitators and Barriers of Use. In host publication.. Publication link: 0e904b3e-5403-464e-be4d-67415c378d1d
  • McGoldrick, P., Keeling, K., Macaulay, L., & Fowler, D. (2001). Service with a Smile? Modelling Customer Acceptance of Instore Electronic Kiosks.. Publication link: c69de1d2-3403-4efd-bb26-cd0a156411bf


  • McGoldrick, P., Betts, E., & Keeling, K. (2000). High-low Pricing: audit evidence and consumer preferences. Pricing Strategy & Practice, 9(4). . Publication link: 75fe3f9c-b15b-4b10-99fc-9230f37e3bf1


  • Mcgoldrick, P., Betts, E., & Keeling, K. (1999). Antecedents of Spontaneous Buying Behaviour During Temporary Markdowns. Advances in Consumer Research, 26(1). . Publication link: ce8e2fa0-8061-42ac-8e8d-9d075b4be3df